Pasta is an inexpensive and very satisfying dish. They can be both an independent part of the meal, and an excellent side dish for meat or vegetable dishes. Cooking pasta is quick and easy, which makes them an indispensable element of home cooking. However, there are certain rules for the preparation of this product, breaking which can be obtained instead of a tasty and delicious dish sticky dough. We will teach you how to cook and serve this favorite dish.
Historians are increasingly inclined to believe that pasta came to Sicily from the East. Tender love of Japanese and Chinese noodles is proof of this theory.
The official capital of the pasta is considered to be Palermo, where they first began to produce on an industrial scale and transported by ship to many other countries.
Drying and forming pasta was done almost exclusively by women, although it was a rather difficult job, sometimes taking about 12-14 hours.
The first professional dough mixers, making the dough for the subsequent formation of pasta, kneaded her legs. They walked all day long on the bottom of a huge vat, turning flour and water into elastic dough. This profession was considered very prestigious.
Up to the 17th century, factory-made products were available only to rich people and were most often served at the table as a dessert. Representatives of the lower classes were content with vegetables and dairy products, as for the manufacture of pasta required expensive wheat variety - durum.
Durum wheat differs from the usual high content of protein and gluten, which provides the special properties of pasta made from it
In Russia, the first factory for the production of these products opened in 1802 in Odessa, and the products were made exclusively from hard wheat grown in the surrounding regions of the country. By 1913, there were already 39 large enterprises for the production of various varieties, whose products were exported abroad.
Varieties and varieties
At the very beginning of its history, the product was made in the form of long round or flat noodles, but by the XVIII century it began to be divided into many varieties.
Some types of pasta are familiar only to a close circle of culinary specialists, others are famous and in demand all over the world.
In modern cooking, it is customary to distinguish the following main varieties:
- for roasting in the oven;
- for cooking soups;
- for stuffing.
By the long include both tubular and flat varieties.
Photo Gallery: Long Pasta
- Capellini are extremely thin pasta, usually 0.88 mm in diameter
- Bavette pasta can be used as noodle soup, they are great for vegetable soups and broths
- Mafaldine is pasta in the form of flat long ribbons with a characteristic feature in the form of a wavy edge.
- Fettucine pasta is thin flat dough strips about 7 mm wide
- Spaghetti was born in Naples and owes its name to Antonio Viviani, who nicknamed them so in 1842 for being similar to twine pieces.
Short pasta of various forms is especially loved by children, because they are much easier to eat without risking soiling sauce.
Photo Gallery: short pasta
- Twisted girandole keeps the sauce very well on its surface, revealing it with a single palette of amazing flavors.
- This type of pasta got its name because of its similarity with ancient feathers for writing.
- Pipe Rigate is one of the most sophisticated types of dry short paste, in Russia it is not particularly common.
- McCheroni is a short paste, similar to small elongated and slightly bent tubes
The figured forms in their form awaken inspiration and the preparation of the usual dinner turns into an amazing process of culinary expression.
Photo Gallery: Varieties of curly pasta
- Kavatelli are square pieces of dough, compressed in the middle and resembling bows
- Campanella is well suited for serving together with meat dishes in a rich sauce.
- Conkilioni pasta made in the form of large shells
Pasta designed for roasting in the oven, are flat rectangular sheets of dough. Of these dry sheets, pre-boiled in boiling water, prepare the legendary Italian dish - lasagna.
The dough sheets for lasagna are made quite thin, since when boiled and then baked with sauce, they increase in size.
Initially, small ones were used to prepare the Italian minestrone soup, but later small soups began to be included in the recipes of national cuisines of other countries. For example, rich chicken soup is hard to imagine without noodles or tiny stars.
Photo Gallery: small pasta soup
- Anelli is a type of short pasta in the form of small rings.
- Orecchietta pasta is a special type of pasta in the shape of small ears, this is how it is translated from Italian
- Orzo is one of the forms of shortened Italian pasta, resembling a form of large grains of rice.
Pasta for a variety of fillings are often pre-boiled, this information is always on the back of the package. You can stuff them with meat and vegetable fillings. Some recipes use ricotta or fish fillets. Also, there are frequent recipes with sweet fillings, in this case the dish is served at the table as a hot dessert.
Gallery: pasta for stuffing
- Large large lumakoni complex shape specifically designed for filling stuffing
- Cannelloni pasta is Italian pasta, which has the shape of tubes about 10 cm long and 2-3 cm in diameter
- Tortellini are Italian unleavened dumplings with meat, cheese or vegetables.
- Gnocchi are small Italian oval or round-shaped dumplings.
How to cook pasta so that they do not stick together
The main mistakes during cooking are the following:
- Pour an insufficient amount of water into the cooking container. In this case, the pasta will inevitably stick together in an unappetizing gray lump, as they contain a huge amount of starch. The best ratio of water and pasta professional chefs consider a ratio of ten to one. That is, one part of pasta is necessary to take ten parts of boiling water.
The abundance of foam in the pan with pasta suggests that the water in the tank is not enough, but the starch is an oversupply
- Do not salt the water before putting pasta in it. Such a gross mistake is often made by novice chefs, hoping that it will be possible to dosolit the dish in the process of further preparation. This should not be done in any way. The rule of cooking delicious dishes says: products are placed only in boiling salted water. Salts need to take 10 grams per liter of water. Compliance with this rule will prevent them from sticking together and allow them to preserve their texture.
Water with salt should boil for 30 seconds before putting pasta into it.
- Do not stir the contents of the container with cooking pasta. After you have pasta in boiling water, you should not leave the stove for at least the next five minutes. Water must be stirred, otherwise the products will stick to the bottom of the pan and lose their integrity. Torn into pieces and deformed pasta will look extremely unsightly, and their taste will decrease significantly.
It is most convenient to mix the contents of the pan with boiling pasta with such a wooden spoon.
Sometimes on the net or in some cookbooks there is advice to add olive or vegetable oil to cooking water for cooking pasta. In this case, it is argued that such a secret approach will not allow products to stick together. The advice of this professional chefs is considered very controversial, since in this case the pasta is covered with an oil film and becomes unable to absorb the sauce for the pasta, which makes their taste flat and expressionless.
Ways of proper preparation
There are both classic methods of cooking pasta at home, and more modern, household appliances used in the process. And yet, whatever method you choose, the basic recommendations for cooking remain unchanged.
Cook the pasta in the pan
Depending on the type of products on the packaging in which they are sold, the cooking period of the product is indicated. Professional chefs recommend sticking to the instructions, as otherwise there is a risk to digest and spoil the taste of the dish.
In order to boil a medium portion of pasta (500 g), boil 5 liters of water in a large saucepan.
For the next step you need to wait for rapid boiling water
50 g of salt or sea salt should be poured into boiling water.
One tablespoon of a small hill contains 25 grams of salt, that is, a pot with five liters of water will need two tablespoons of salt
Then you need to wait 30 seconds and put the products into boiling water, then continuously stir them for the first five minutes of cooking.
If you cook spaghetti or any other long pasta, you do not need to break them apart, after a couple of minutes they will soften and sink into the water themselves.
You need to keep track of time, so as not to miss the moment when the pasta will be ready. After the expiration of the period indicated on the package, you can taste the food to taste. If the pasta seems undercooked to you, then leave them in a saucepan with boiling water for another couple of minutes.
Then drain the water along with the pasta into a volume colander placed in another pan. Hot water remaining after cooking pasta is saturated with starch and can be used to dilute too thick sauce.
No need to intensively shake the colander with pasta, if they have a little hot water, it will only allow them to better absorb the sauce
Never rinse cooked pasta with cold water! This barbaric way kills the whole taste of pasta and prevents them from absorbing the sauce for the pasta. If the food is intended to garnish to the main dish, you can fill the pasta with a small amount of butter.
Cook in a multivariate
The slow cooker is a modern universal fixture suitable for preparing many dishes. For cooking pasta it is best to use the model, among which the functionality is present mode "Pasta". Otherwise, it is necessary, by mistakes and victories, to calculate the necessary algorithm of actions in order to obtain an edible and beautiful pasta dish.
Experienced housewives say that in a multicooker it is especially convenient to boil large curly macaroni - conquilioni, canelloni, lasagne sheets.
So, to prepare a standard portion of pasta in a slow cooker, you need:
- Put pasta (500 g), salt (2 tsp) and butter (50 g) in a bowl. To stir thoroughly.
Butter can be added not to the multicooker bowl, but to the ready-made pasta.
- Pour the pasta with salty boiling water (700 g) and bring the slow cooker to the working position.
Boiling water with salt and spices (optional) must be prepared in advance.
- Set pasta mode on the multicooker panel and cook pasta for the time indicated on the package.
Experienced housewives are advised to add another 5-7 minutes to the time indicated on the package with pasta, so the pasta is more tender.
Ready-made pasta does not require reclining to a colander, since all the liquid is absorbed into them without residue during cooking.
Ready-made pasta can be served with grated cheese, herbs and crushed dried breadcrumbs
Cooking in a double boiler
Products cooked in a double boiler contain more nutrients and have a more pronounced taste.
Cooking in a double boiler is not suitable for small varieties of pasta. Unlike rice, small pasta is irregularly soaked with hot steam, which inevitably stick together and look unpresentable. But large pasta cooked in a double boiler great, keeping its shape and texture.
For this method, you need a double boiler with a bowl for cooking rice. In the lower part of the double boiler you need to pour water, then set the top and the other tiers on top.
Before cooking pasta, you need to fully prepare the steamer for work.
Pasta (300 g), salt (1 tsp) and some butter (20 g) should be placed in the bowl.
The bottom of the bowl should be greased with vegetable oil so that the pasta is not stuck during cooking.
Next, you need to set a time interval of 20 minutes on the timer. All this time you should not open the lid of the double boiler, since the release of steam can lead to a decrease in temperature.
When the timer reports the expiration of the specified time, you need to carefully open the lid and fold the pasta into a colander set in a small saucepan.
The water in which the pasta was boiled can be useful for the subsequent preparation of the sauce, so it is better to install a colander in a small saucepan.
Pasta in a double boiler turn out very delicate, but at the same time dense, with a rich texture. If you apply grated cheese to them, you get a completely independent nutritional dish.
This method of cooking pasta is somewhat unusual, but many housewives find it extremely convenient.
How to cook in the microwave
When cooking pasta in the microwave, you must follow some simple rules. These include:
- we cook pasta only in special dishes designed for microwave;
- water must completely cover the product;
- every two minutes pasta must be mixed.
For this method of cooking pasta, you will need a spacious bowl and boiling water. The ratio should be 1: 2. That is, for one part of the pasta, use two parts of boiling water.
In the tank for cooking in the microwave, place 1 cup of pasta.
In a special dish designed for microwave, pasta cooked evenly and retain their taste
Fill them with pre-prepared salted boiling water (2 tbsp.), In which salt is added (1 tsp.).
Water for pasta to bring to a boil
Then you need to put the container with pasta in the microwave and cook for 8-10 minutes.
Some microwaves are equipped with the "cooking pasta" mode, otherwise you should set the maximum power
From time to time it is necessary to stir the pasta so that they do not stick together.
For mixing pasta it is convenient to use a wooden spoon on a long handle.
When the pasta is ready, they need to fold in a colander and add to it melted butter (25 g), then mix thoroughly.
Adding butter to hot pasta protects them from sticking together.
In the microwave oven, pasta stews evenly and loses less starch, which contributes to a better absorption of the sauce.
How to cook pasta in a pan
There is another unusual way to cook pasta quickly and very tasty. To do this, you need a frying pan and a small amount of vegetable oil.
The pan for this method of cooking pasta is better to take a thick-walled and non-stick coating
Add vegetable oil (2 tablespoons) to the pan, pour the pasta (250 g) into it and fry on low heat until golden brown.
Such a reception before cooking will give the pasta an unusual and very pleasant taste.
Then pour the contents of the pan with boiling water, to which salt is added (2 tsp) and cook over medium heat without a lid for 5-7 minutes.
Water for pasta should reach a boiling point
When combining boiling water and a hot frying pan with butter and pasta, clubs of hot steam will inevitably appear. In order not to burn yourself, it is necessary to protect hands with special tacks.
Kitchen protective gloves must be made of dense multi-layered textiles, in which case they will reliably protect your hands from accidental burns with hot steam
After the expiration of the specified period, you can see that all the water is absorbed into the roasted pasta and you do not need to pour anything. This method of cooking significantly saves time spent in the kitchen and requires a minimum of effort. In addition, an unusual, slightly smoked taste opens up new facets of the usual product.
Cooking in a pan with pre-frying is suitable only for small varieties of pasta. Large pasta with this method of cooking will lose their appearance and taste. Particularly tasty is obtained vermicelli cooked in a pan, and small shells.
How many minutes to cook pasta al dente
Al dente cooks designate a particular stage of cooking. This means that the dish is slightly undercooked and has a bit of a hard core. In the case of macaroni, this is determined by the taste - when crunching macaroni, it slightly crunches on the teeth.
Al dente can be cooked not only pasta, but also a variety of vegetables.
Такой подход в приготовлении макарон считается профессиональным и необходим для макаронных изделий, предназначенных для последующего смешивания с соусом. Hot sauce permeates them and contributes to a more complete disclosure of the flavor of the aldent dish.
Boil water (5 l) over high heat with salt (2 tbsp.).
For proper cooking pasta you need to achieve rapid boiling water.
Dip pasta in boiling water.
Pasta must be placed in boiling water all at once, so they are uniformly wrapped in steam and hot water, which prevents sticking.
The first five minutes of cooking, you should mix the pasta in the pan, so that they do not stick to the bottom and stick together.
Stir the pasta should be careful movements, so as not to break them and not deform
Depending on the cooking time indicated on the package, remove one or two macaroni two minutes before the end of cooking. Try the taste. Pasta should be a little undercooked, just a little. When cracking, you should feel a slight crunch.
If the necessary condition is reached, safely bounce the pasta in a colander.
It is necessary to pour the pasta quickly so that they do not lose the required structure.
Cook spaghetti in cheese sauce
This recipe is considered a classic pasta cooking and a universal way to feed the whole family with a hearty lunch or dinner. In Italy, this dish is called Alfredo pasta and is the most common dish in all regions of the country.
Pasta for this dish must be cooked al dente, otherwise the sauce will not be absorbed properly and the taste will not open properly.
Prepare spaghetti according to the classic recipe in a large saucepan. Each serving will need 150 g of dried pasta made from hard wheat varieties.
Instead of spaghetti, you can use any long pasta. Well fit bukatini, which has a cavity inside, so they absorb more sauce. Fettuccine and pappardel have a flat shape, due to which they also capture a greater amount of sauce. In addition, mafaldine is also made specifically for delicate thick sauces, as each macaroni has wavy edges, which does not allow the sauce to flow back to the plate during the meal.
Pasta needs to be cooked in a large amount of salty boiling water.
Then you need to take a stewpan with high sides and heat it along with butter (2 tbsp.) And high-grade wheat flour (2 tbsp.). Blend the mixture over low heat, and when the oil in the skillet is completely melted, add the heat and lightly fry the flour until golden brown.
The mixture of flour and oil should be constantly stirring with a wooden spatula.
After the base of the sauce has thickened and slightly fried it is necessary to add pre-heated cream (300 ml). The fire must be moderate so that all the ingredients of the sauce come together in a homogeneous mass.
You will need a whisk to stir the sauce.
While flour, butter and cream turn into a sauce, they should be continuously rubbed with a wooden spatula. This will prevent the formation of unappetizing lumps that violate the structure of the sauce. The resulting thick mass should flow freely from the wooden spoon, showing uniformity. The color of the sauce should be gently creamy.
A round wooden spatula is very convenient to grind flour lumps on the sides of a saucepan
Next you need to give the sauce spicy and balanced taste. To do this, add salt and ground pepper. Put the spices to your taste, adding them on a pinch and trying each time after this result.
Salt is recommended to take coarse sea grinding, and pepper is best to grind immediately before use.
Grate a small piece of parmesan or any other sharp cheese with low moisture content on a coarse grater. For two servings you will need 120 g of cheese.
In the budget version of the preparation of Alfredo sauce, you can use dried cheese remaining in the refrigerator. The main thing is that there are no traces of mold on it.
Grated parmesan is also useful for decorating the finished dish, so rub it a little more than what is needed.
Now you need to add grated cheese to the almost ready sauce and distribute it to the skillet with the help of a whisk. The movements should be light and not too intense, because the cheese will slowly melt in a hot thick sauce.
Whisk is more convenient than a spatula, stir melted cheese in hot sauce
Ready-made sauce does not need to be kept on the fire for a long time, because under the influence of heat, the moisture from it will evaporate, and its texture may begin to delaminate. Immediately after the readiness, the sauce must be poured into a sauceboat and served to the table.
Be sure to place a saucer under the sauceboat so that you keep the tablecloth or table surface clean.
By this time, spaghetti al dente should be ready. They need to be laid out on plates, and on top covered with a layer of hot cheese sauce. Freshly cooked pasta will intensively absorb silky spicy sauce and get an unforgettable taste.
Once you have combined the sauce and spaghetti in the plate, you need to mix them well, and then immediately adjust to the meal
Alfredo Spaghetti Ready! This dish can not be prepared in advance, it is served only freshly prepared.
Knowing the simple secrets of proper cooking pasta, you can collect an extensive collection of recipes for all occasions. It is difficult to find a person who would not like this hearty and simple dish. Pasta is good and boiled for a side dish, and in the form of pasta with a thick and delicate sauce, with a variety of shapes and types will not allow this product to bore. The main thing is to remember that only pasta from hard wheat varieties is useful and not dangerous for the waist.